General concepts

About different types of files, plugins and extensions.

The way Lume works is simple: it just read files in your src directory, process the content and save the final files into the dest folder.

There are different types of files:

Page files

A page file is a file that is loaded, processed and saved to the dest folder generating one or more pages. In Lume, there are two different types of pages:

Regular pages

Are files intended to generate HTML pages. Let's take as an example:

  1. Load the content of the file.
  2. Change the output file from / to /my-page/index.html.
  3. Run preprocessors
  4. Render the page content and layouts
  5. Run processors
  6. Save the output file as /my-page/index.html.

By default, Lume interprets the following formats as regular page files, so they are loaded, processed and exported to dest folder: .md, .markdown, .njk, .tmpl.json, .tmpl.js, .tmpl.ts and .yaml. Use site.loadPages() to add additional extensions:

// To load pages with the extension .foo
// Example: / => /my-page/index.html

If you're using any plugin to provide support for a new template engine, like pug or eta, you don't need to run site.loadPages() because the plugin does it for you. {.tip}

Asset pages

Are pages intended to output assets, like .css files, .js or images. They are very similar to regular pages but with a couple of differences. Let's take my-styles.css as an example:

  1. Load the content of the file.
  2. Run preprocessors
  3. Run processors
  4. Save the output file as /my-styles.css.

Lume doesn't load any asset by default. Use the function site.loadAssets() to configure Lume to load some extensions as page assets. For example:

// Load .css files

If you're using any plugin to process assets, like postcss, esbuild or svgo, don't need to run site.loadAssets() because the plugin does it for you. {.tip}

Data files

Data files are the files saved as _data.* or in _data/ directories and contain data shared to the page files. The following files are interpreted as data files: _data.yaml, _data.ts, _data.js, _data.json. If you want to load additional data formats, use site.loadData() function:

// Load .toml files
site.loadData([".toml"], tomlLoader);

Static files

They are files that are exported to the dest folder but don't need to be processed, so Lume doesn't load the content, only copies them. They are copied as is using the site.copy() function. See more about copy.

// Copy all files from the "/static/" directory

// Copy .pdf files


Are files loaded by the pages, for example, the layouts or templates. By default, they are placed in the _includes folder, but you can configure it.

// Save the layouts files of nunjucks in the "/njk/" directory
site.includes([".njk"], "/njk/");


By default are saved in the _components folder and store reusable pieces of code that you can use in your templates. You can load additional components with site.loadComponents() function. See more about components

// Load jsx components
site.loadComponents([".jsx"], jsxLoader, jsxRenderer);


Everything in Lume is a plugin. Even the support of core formats like .md, .yaml, .json etc is provided by some plugins that enabled by default